Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press
Volume LI. 2004 / No 1
Chronicle 80Reviews 82
Pavol K o p r d a, Filozofická fakulta UKF, Nitra, Ústav svetovej literatúry SAV, Bratislava
The subject of the study is the Book of Songs written by Petrarca. It could be considered to be the first piece of modern literature. The starting point of creating the modern literature comes from the moment when a literary work stopped to be an expression of a fixed semantic hierarchy. In the period after the reign of the Hohenstauf family a new social climate arose in Italy, it was a social environment without clear hierarchy of values. The Bible was replaced by an encyclopedia, which became a directional book for the communal bourgeoisie. Equal values of any term are typical for a terminology in the encyclopedia. It is up to a reader to make structures and hierarchies of the terms by his own.
A man, a reader, makes connections among terms, which do not look similar at all. Two dissimilar things look like similar ones, if a social community considers them both to be similar things, if the reconstructed scheme expresses a wide social experience. This social phenomenon has been being followed by literature. It is a matter of literature to find new codes, to join dissimilar things, to create a new net of similar ones, organized in a new hierarchic system. The literature has not already been a matter of elite.
The study consists of three parts. An introduction deals with the beginning of micro-texts, poetic forms – stanzas, sonnets. They were the first forms making analogies of disjunctive things, joining together independent contents. The second part is dedicated to the Petrarca´s Book of Songs as the first macro-text of the first book in the world literature. It is difficult to step out from creating micro-text to macro-text. It requires from an author to create an individualized perception of time duration, to destroy an objective historical time and to replace it by subjective time as a story of “me”. It is important to make it in a way, adequate and believable to an audience. If this time transformation is successful, a literary work becomes a part of the literary process. A history of literature is also created on this basis. Petrarca learned an art of creating a fine macro-text from the works of Cino Da Pistola. The last part of my study deals with topois and hidden structures from the works of Cino Da Pistola, which became inspirations for Petrarca´s literary work.
Fedor M a t e j o v, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava
Text deals with an interpretation of the poetry of J. Mihalkovič from the end of 60th and the beginning of 70th.
The interpretation itself is preceded by an discursion about a situation in interpretation of after war and present, wide comprehended poetry. After more than four decades from the establishing and making a profile of a gesture of interpretation in the Slovak literary scholarship and critics, the discursion outlines briefly some of the current issues of such a work: recoming of biography and a context of life to work with a text in connections with completing of biographies and works of many key authors; necessity of culturally semiotic and ideologically critical reading in connection with social changes from the end of 80th ; necessity of making the work with a text more deeply due to a tradition of the Modernism and avant-garde as poetologically and historically supportive background.
The poetic cycle Spôsob ticha (A way of Silence) written by J. Mihalkovič, which was formally published in his selection of poems called Albá (Albums, 1972) and then the same cycle was included in the collection of poems Kam sa náhlite (Where are you rushing, 1974), from literary historiographical aspect, it represents an example of unclear and non-reconstructed process of crossover of poetry of protagonists of 60th to a new, different decade. Interpretation of two chosen poems Smerom (In the Direction) and Prah (Treshold) is focused on following the plan of the author – bare “languageness” of the texts as well as tendency, which is based on including a poetic picture inside a designation, inside its possibilities to create new words and para-etymological possibilities (in the end there are like a parallel mentioned texts of L. Novomeský, M. Válka, Š. Moravčík). a certain view at contemporary poetic searching of Mihalkovič expresses his translation of a key poem written by a Soviet poet O. Mandeľštam Kto našiel podkovu (Who found a horse-shoe)
Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic PressTheoretical optics to an interpretation during a reading is supplied by an imagination about in advance uncertain interplay, alternation of different levels in the artistic text (a whole text, a sentence, a verse, a word, a morpheme, etc. in a sense of “a structure of an artistic text“, J. Lotman). The end is dedicated to an open question how to put an potential aesthetic invariant of an author ´s texts between “life-theme” situation and poetological description. In a case of j. Mihalkovič the principle will probably call “mirroring” (in different type of meaning of a word).