Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press



Volume 39 / No. 4 / 2002

Local and systemic immune response in mice after single and multiple infection with Toxocara canis


W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 
Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic.


In mice after infection with T. canis eggs: 1 x 500 ova (single) or 4 x 20 ova (multiple), the reactions in respiratory system were examined. The aim of our studies was the survey of NO production in lung macrophages and a level of specific antibodies in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) during single and multiple infection of mice with Toxocara canis. In BALFs there was no difference in protein contents among all groups of mice. The higher numbers of macrophages were revealed in mice infected with multiple ova at 5, 7 and 10 dpi. The ability of macrophages, after in vitro cultivation, to produce NO was high and adversely proportional to the number of these cells in BALFs of multiple infected mice. In mice after multiple infections a higher level of NO in urine was registered, too. Specific IgM antibodies were present mainly in BALFs after multiple infections, IgG and IgA antibodies were stated in BALFs and sera of mice from both experimental groups. The level of IgG and IgA was higher in sera of mice after multiple infections in comparison to mice after single infection. The above results allow to conclude that multiple infections with the small numbers of ova were able to cause stronger immunological local reaction in respiratory system than the single higher dose of T. canis ova.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 185-191, 2002

A second case of autochthonous human alveolar echinococcosis in the Slovak Republic

J. Kinčeková, K. Reiterová, P. Dubinský, M. Szilágyiová1, R. Johanes2, M. Gottas2

Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic;
Clinic of Infectious Diseases of Jessenius Medical Faculty of Komensky University and University Hospital Martin, Slovak Republic; 
Department Surgery Hospital with Polyclinic, Žilina, Slovak Republic; E-mail: reiter@saske.sk 


The authors present a case of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in a 71 year-old woman living in a mountainous area of the northwestern Slovak Republic. Since 1990 she has been under ambulatory control and treated for arterial hypertension, chronic ischaemia and anaemia with anisocytosis. In 2000 an irregular shaped focus in the liver and enlarged spleen were diagnosed. The patient was admitted to the hospital due to a significant weight loss, and deterioration of the haematological findings with a high blood sedimentation rate. The examination of a biopsy, taken from the liver focus under CT control, revealed numerous calcifications localised in the periphery and the presence of several small vesicles embedded into connective tissue. The wall of the vesicles consisted of PAS-positive laminated membranes without nuclei; protoscoleces or hooks were not detected The US and CT images, the laparoscopic picture and the histological picture of the biopsy were clearly indicative for alveolar echinococcosis. Serological examinations using specific test systems have confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Epidemiological evidence is suggestive for an autochthonous infection, the second one described in the country during the last 3 years.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 193-196, 2002

Surface hydrophobicity of Ascaris eggs and Giardia cysts

S. Capizzi-Banas, M. Maux, J. Schwartzbrod

Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, Equipe de Microbiologie et Physique - Parasitologie, UMR 7564 UHP-CNRS, Faculté de Pharmacie, 5 rue Albert Lebrun, P.O. Box 403, 54001 Nancy Cedex, France, E-mail: sandrine.banas@pharma.uhp-nancy.fr 


The environment can be contaminated by intestinal parasites via the deposit of human or animal faeces or the discharge of sewage and wastewater into receiving waters. In order to determine whether they are hydrophobic or hydrophilic, suspensions of Ascaris eggs and Giardia cysts are mixed with suspensions of microspheres. The adhesion percentage of Ascaris eggs was 57.8 % on hydrophobic octylSepharose microspheres and only 17.2 % on hydrophilic Sepharose microspheres. For the tests with polystyrene microspheres, we counted 82.8 % of hydrophobic microspheres compared to just 17.2 % of hydrophilic microspheres on the Ascaris egg surface. The results show that Ascaris eggs are more hydrophobic than hydrophilic. The adhesion of Giardia cysts to hydrophilic and hydrophobic microspheres shows an hydrophobic character. Nevertheless the index of hydrophobicity presents some variations according to the conditions of physical and chemical purification with respectively 23.5 % and 38 % of Giardia cysts with hydrophobic microspheres on surface.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 197-204, 2002

Lethal effect of selected disinfectants on Ascaris suum eggs

M. Ondrašovič, P. Juriš1, I. Papajová1, O. Ondrašovičová, R. Ďurečko2, M. Vargová

University of Veterinary Medicine, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice; 
Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice; E-mail: papaj@saske.sk;
State Veterinary Institute, Hlinkova 1, 040 01 Košice


Tests were carried out to investigate the potential lethal effect of selected disinfectants on non-embryonated eggs of Ascaris suum. The highest lethal effect was exerted by ammonium hydroxide which killed on average 79.69 ± 2.06 % of A. suum eggs at 0.5 % concentration and 93.95 ± 0.45 % at 10 % concentration at 180 min. exposure. The additional disinfectants tested (chlorinated lime, Dikonit, Savo, Presept, Dusept and Benzitrín) exhibited only low lethal effects and the proportion of killed eggs was lower than 50 %. Our study has proved a high survival of eggs of the model helminth A. suum in the environment containing commonly used disinfectants with antimicrobial or viroci-dal effects.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 205-209, 2002

The benzimidazole resistance of cyathostomes on five horse farms in the Czech Republic

I. Langrová1,*, M. Borovský1, I. Jankovská1, J. Navrátil2, V. Slavík3

1,* Section of Parasitology, Department of Zoology and Fishfarming;
Department of Cattle Breeding and Dairying;
Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Agriculture, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6, 165 21, Czech Republic, E-mail: langrová@af.czu.cz 


Trials were conducted in Czech Republic on 5 farms to determine the efficacy of two benzimidazoles and ivermectin against naturally acquired cyathostomes of horses. Resistance was tested by the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with mebendazole (8 mg/kg), fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg). Ten days after treatment FECRT values indicated resistance to benzimidazoles on all farms. Efficacies of both benzimidazoles ranged between 20.6 % and 83.9 % (mebendazole), and between 6.1 % and 78.8 % (fenbendazole). The results of the FECR carried out and interpreted according to the WAAVP recommendations (Coles et al., 1992), do not provided evidence of resistance to ivermectin, on the all farms where the occurrence of resistance was examined. A larval development test (LDT) and an egg hatch test (EHT) were also used to measure the sensitivity of eggs and larvae in vitro to anthelmintics

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 211-216, 2002

The present status of anthelmintic resistance in sheep, goats and horses in the Slovak Republic

J. Čorba, M. Várady, A. Königová

Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: corba@saske.sk 


During 1991-2001 a survey of the incidence of anthelmintic resistant strains of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, goats and horses in the Slovak Republic was carried out. From 80 sheep farms (breeds Merino, Tsigaia and Valaška) benzimidazole resistance was confirmed in 7 flocks, but in 58 other flocks the levels of resistance were close to the reference value 0.1 µg.ml-1 thiabendazole. Also the resistance against imidazothiazole drugs (tetramisole, levamiso-le) was observed in one farm. The first intercontinental transfer of resistant gastrointestinal nematodes was con-firmed in angora goats imported to the Slovak Republic from New Zealand. Forty-six horses studs were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most common were Strongylidae (65.5 %) and Parascaris equo-rum (9%) while the other helminths (Dicrocoelium dendri-ticum, Strongyloides westeri and Anoplocephala spp.) were found only occasionally. In all the examined horses the presence of small strongyles (subfamily Cyathostominae) was confirmed. Using the coprological culture method the following species were identified: Cyathostomum spp., Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Cylicostephanus spp. In 64 % of examined horse farms fenben-dazole resistant small strongyles were found. Our results prove that anthelmintic resistance in the Slovak Republic is wide-spread and special precautions are necessary to prevent future cases arising from the import of animals from affected countries.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 217-220, 2002

Observations on two species of phyllodistomes (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae) from fishes of the Hubei Province, central China, with an erection of Neophyllodistomum gen. n.

F. Moravec, P. Nie1

Institute of Parasitology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic, E-mail: moravec@paru.cas.cz
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, and Laboratory of Fish Diseases, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, Hubei Province, P. R. China


Two rare trematode species so far reported in the genus Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899, P. pawlovskii (Zmeev, 1936) and P. serrispatula Chin, 1963, were found in the urinary system the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson) of Bao’an Lake (prevalence 8 %) and the swamp eel Monopterus albus (Zouiev) of Liangzi Lake (prevalen-ce 6 %), respectively, from the Hubei Province, central China. In contrast to the original description, P. pawlovskii showed a considerable morphological variability particularly in the shape, size and topography of testes. A unique morphological feature of P. serrispatula is the presence of many conspicuous lateral outgrowths on the hindbody and, principally based on this character, a new genus Neophyllodistomum is erected (type species N. serrispatula (Chin, 1963) comb. n.)) to accommodate this species. Both trema-tode species are briefly redescribed. P. pawlovskii and N. serrispatula are reported for the first time from the Hubei Province and the former from the Yangtze River drainage system.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 221-225, 2002

Description of Cinclotaenia paradehiscens n. sp. and its comparison with Cinclotaenia dehiscens (Krabbe, 1879) (Cestoda: Dilepididae), tapeworms of the dipper Cinclus cinclus (L.) (Passeriformes: Cinclidae)

M. Špakulová, J. K. Macko, A. Macková1

Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: spakulma@saske.sk
Institute of Biology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Mánesova 23, 041 54 Košice, Slovak Republic; E-mail: amacko@kosice.up-js.sk 


Dippers Cinclus cinclus (L.) captured in the Carpathian Mountains in the Slovak Republic during 1957 were para-sitized by four species of the genus Cinclotenia Macy, 1973. Of them, Cinclotaenia paradehiscens n. sp. was re-cognized as a new species. It differs from the closely-related congener C. dehiscens (Krabbe, 1879) by its larger and wider strobila, the clearly narrower apical part of the rostellum, the slightly different shape of the rostellar hooks and the higher mean number of testes. A modified generic diagnosis of Cinclotaenia is proposed.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 227-231, 2002

Longidorus uroshis Krnjaić et al., 2000 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) in the Slovak Republic


Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic,E-mail: MartaLiskova@atlas.sk ;
1Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Institut für Nematologie und Wirbeltierkunde, Toppheideweg 88, 48161 Münster, Germany, E-mail: D.Sturhan@bba.d 


Longidorus uroshis, described from Montenegro and not recorded outside the type locality so far, was found in soil from Querceto-Carpineto-Fagetum forest type in the sout-hern part of Slovakia. Morphometrics of females, males and the four juvenile stages and morphological characteristics complementing the original description are presented, and an improved diagnosis of the species is given.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 39, 4: 223-236, 2002

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