Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press



Volume 40 / No. 1 / 2003

Changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after immunomodulation of Toxocara canis infected mice

E. Dvoroznakova, Z. Boroskova, O. Tomasovicova

Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic;  E-mail: dvoroz@saske.sk


The changes in the occurrence of spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T subpopulations were examined after an external interfe-rence into the immunity (immunostimulation and immuno-suppression) of the host infected with the Toxocara canis eggs, in correlation with intensity of infection. The application of glucan immunostimulator (GI) (5 mg/kg b.w.) before T. canis infection moderated the fall of CD4+ cells and restored the short-time decrease of CD8+ cells which had been caused by the infection. The numbers of T. canis larvae in host tissues after GI modulation decreased by 43.4 % in the muscles and 51.0 % in the brain in com-parison with infected hosts without the immunostimulator. The administration of immunosuppressive drug – cyclo-phosphamide (CY) (10 mg/kg b.w.) before infection, induced the longtime fall of CD4+ T subpopulation and emphasized the reduction of CD8+ T cells after the infection. The decrease of CD8+ subpopulation was inverted to its consecutive rise. In comparison with infected hosts without immunosuppressive treatment, the number of T. canis larvae present in muscles and brain increased in mice with CY by 37.5 % and 53.6  %, respectively.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:1-7, 2003

Serodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in Turkey


Erciyes University, Medical Faculty, Department of Parasitology, Kayseri, Turkey; 
Ege University, Medical , Department of Parasitology, Izmir, Turkey, E-mail: altintas@med.ege.edu.tr


Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a major public health problem in Turkey. Serological confirmation of CE cases has not standardized at present. In our study, sera were taken from 150 surgically confirmed CE patients, 71 patients with nonparasitic cysts, tumours, abscess, allergy or lymphadenopathy, also sera from 35 patients infected with intestinal and tissue helminths and 30 healthy people as control group. A total of 286 sera was studied by Western blotting (WB), Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT), Indirect Haemaglutination Test (IHAT), and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Specificity and sensitivity were found as follows; 94.7 % and 91.9 % by IFAT; 94.7 % and 94.1 % by IHAT; 96.7 % and 92.6 % by ELISA and 96.0 % and 100 % by WB. It was found that ELISA had the highest 96.7 % sensitivity and on the other hand WB had the highest 100 % specificity for human CE antibody detection.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:9-13, 2003

The effect of Stalosan F on selected poultry parasites

T. W. Schou, A. Permin

Section for Parasitology, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Stigbøjlen 4, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, E-mail: ape@kvl.dk


Production losses are significantly higher in free-range table egg production systems compared to conventional intensive indoor production systems. No methodical analysis of the cause of the higher morbidity and mortality is available at present. However, investigations have shown that infections with intestinal roundworms such as Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Capillaria obsignata are more prevalent in free-range production systems. These infections might cause production losses in the range of 10-20% due to impaired feed conversion, reduced growth and egg production, and increased mortality. The potentially high level of disease in the organic production of broilers and eggs for consumption, together with anthelmintic regulations in force, show a marked need for alternative methods of parasite control in organic poultry production. The aim of this study was to examine whether Stalosan F could be an alternative or supplement in the control of selected endoparasites in poultry. Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Stalosan F on A. galli, H. gallinarum and C. obsignata eggs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In short, the results suggest that Stalosan F does have a sublethal effect on these parasite eggs. Under laboratory conditions eggs treated with Stalosan F showed less ability to develop into infective stages and establish in subsequently experimentally infected chickens. Under field conditions, an area heavily contaminated with A. galli, H. gallinarum and C. obsignata eggs, was divided into two pens. One pen was treated with Stalosan F after which tracer animals were inSerted into both pens. Tracer animals from the Stalosan F treated pen, were found to harbour significantly fewer adult worms than the chickens from the untreated pen. However, no differences were found between the two groups in the total number of worms (larvae and adults) recovered. It therefore seems that the development from larvae to adult worm was arrested by the use of Stalosan F. This could be of importance to the epidemiology of the worms, since it would decrease the reproduction rate of the worms hereby reducing the number of parasite eggs in the pen. Based on these results it seems that regular use of Stalosan F in free-range poultry production systems may reduce the infectivity of  A. galli, H. gallinarum and C. obsignata eggs.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:15-21, 2003

The nematode Diplotriaena henryi (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) as the possible cause of subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory insufficiency in a great tit (Parus major)

I. LiterAk, V. BaruS1, K. HauptmanovA, R. Halouzka2

Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic, E-mail: literaki@vfu.cz;
1Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kvená 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic; 
Department of Pathological Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic


During the postbreeding months in 2001, we were trapping birds in a north-eastern Slovakian locality Ruské in Bukovské Vrchy Hills. Parasitological and haematological examinations of the birds were performed. In total, 2212 birds of 59 species were examined. In the course of our research, we examined 158 great tits and one of them showed the signs of subcutaneous emphysema on the left side of its body in the region from knee to wing and neck; minor emphysema was observed between cloaca and sternum. Due to haemolysis, we could not determine haematocrit value - the examination of blood smear proved the haemolysis of almost all blood cells. When handling the bird, it died without any apparent reason. We noticed that rigor mortis came immediately after the bird had died. The post-mortem examination proved the presence of three nematodes Diplotriaena henryi in pectoral cavity. Moreover, histological examination showed pulmonary oedema and a solitary hepatic granuloma. These lesions could have resulted from D. henryi parasitic infection, respiratory insufficiency and trapping stress.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:23-25, 2003

Contracaecum ogmorhini s. s. Johnston et Mawson, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasite of Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783) off the Argentinean coast


1Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata, Argentina, E-mail: jtimi@mdp.edu.ar
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); 
Department of Public Health Sciences, Section of Parasitology, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Ple. Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy


In the present paper the occurrence of C. ogmorhini Johnston et Mawson, 1941 sensu stricto from the South American fur seal, Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783) of Argentinean waters, is reported. The synonymy between Contracaecum corderoi Lent et Freitas, 1948, a parasite described from A. australis from Uruguay, and C. ogmorhini Johnston et Mawson, 1941, parasitic on several pinniped species from different regions of the world, suggested by Campana-Rouget and Paulian (1960), is discussed. Morphological and biometrical studies on specimens from A. australis and comparisons with C. corderoi and C. ogmorhini s. l., allowed to consider the specimens collected as far as known, to the morphospecies C. ogmorhini. Contracaecum corderoi should be therefore regarded as a junior synonym of C. ogmorhini.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:25-31, 2003

Variations in the distribution of parasites in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, from Lake Iznik, Turkey: population dynamics related to season and host size

A. Aydogdu, A. Kostadinova1,2, M. Fernandez2

Uludag University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Biology, Bursa, Turkey; 
Department of Biodiversity, Central Laboratory of General Ecology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria; 
Marine Zoology Unit, Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, PO Box 22 085, 46071 Valencia, Spain; E-mail: aneta.kostadinova@uv.es


Seasonal variations and the effects of host size and age on parasite prevalence and abundance were examined in a wild population of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Iznik Lake in Turkey. Twelve monthly samples were collected which revealed one species of monogenean, Dactylogyrus extensus, and two species of cestode, Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Abundance of D. extensus varied highly significantly with month increasing from April to peak in May-July, followed by a sharp decrease thereafter. These changes followed the water temperature pattern and a significant positive correlation was found between parasite abundance and water temperature. Significant differences were also revealed in the abundance of C. laticeps indicating a temperaturede-pendent response. Infection was not detected from July to October, most fish acquired parasites during the period December-February, and the parasite population showed a decline in spring until July when the infection disappeared. Of the three species only D. extensus showed a clear tendency of increase in infrapopulation size with host size. The distribution of infrapopulations of D. extensus varied highly significantly with the size class of fish, peaking in large size classes and the correlation of infrapopulation size and fish length was highly significant. A substantial peak in the abundance levels of this monogenean in mature fish was detected in spring and summer, related to spawning.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:33-40, 2003

The occurrence and geographic distribution of Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Brazil


Instituto Biologico, P.B. 70, Campinas, SP, Brazil, 13.001-970, E-mail: colive@scri.sari.ac.uk
Central Laboratory of General Ecology, 2 Gagar
in Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria; 
Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland, DD2 5DA; 
Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, P.B. 09, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, 13.418-900; 4Instituto per la Protezione delle Piante, C. N. R., Sezione di Bari, Bari, Italy, 70126


The occurrence and geographic distribution of Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species were investigated during a national survey of 16 Brazilian States between 1999 and 2001. Eighty two soil samples were collected from different habitats, including crop plants, grassland, savanna (cerrado) and typical Amazonian forest vegetation. Fourteen Xiphinema species (X. brasiliense, X. brevicolle, X. elongatum, X. ensiculiferum, X. ifacolum, X. krugi, X. longicaudatum, X. paritaliae, X. setariae/vulgare complex, X. surinamense, X. variegatum, and three morphotypes of X. americanum sensu lato identified as representing X. diffusum, X. oxycaudatum and X. peruvianum) were recorded. Also, Xiphidorus balcarceanus, X. minor, X. yepesara parthenus and X. yepesara yepesara were identified from three States, however recognition of X. yepesara parthenus as a subspecies of X. yepesara requires confirmation. The most frequently occurring species were X. krugi (46 % of all samples), X. brasiliense (22 %) and X. setariae/vulgare complex (22 %). Xiphinema diffusum, X. longicaudatum, X. oxycaudatum, X. peruvianum and Xiphidorus balcarceanus constitute new records for Brazil. A principal component analysis identified odontostyle and odontophore length and to a lesser extent vulva position as the main influencing morphological characters that could be used to separate the Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species recorded in this study. A dichotomous key for the identification of Xiphinema species reported in Brazil is presented.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:41-54, 2003

The communities of nematodes in agroecosystems of sugar beet, cereals and lucerne in Eastern Slovakia


Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences,Hlinkova 3, 040 01, Košice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: renco@saske.sk


The communities of nematodes in agroecosystems of sugar beet, cereals and lucerne were studied in four localities of Eastern Slovakia. The dominant trophic groups in cereals and lucerne stands were plant feeders but in sugar beet fields it was bacterial feeders. The least proportion in all agroecosystems was predators. The average number of nematodes in 500 g of soil was greatest at cereals and the lowest in sugar beet. The MI, PPI values and F/B ratio were the highest at lucerne stands in comparison with cereals and sugar beet. The determined PPI/MI values were similar in all examined agroecosystems.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:55-58, 2003

Tapeworms of the dipper Cinclus cinclus aquaticus Bechstein (Passeriformes: Cinclidae) in the Slovak Republic and a key to cestode species specific to dippers

J. K. Macko, M. SpakulovA*, A. MackovA1

Parasitological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: spakulma@saske.sk
Institute of Biology, Faculty of Science, P. J.Safarik University, Manesova 23, 04 154 Kosice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: amacko@kosice.up-js.sk


A parasitological survey of the dipper Cinclus cinclus aquaticus Bechstein (Passeriformes, Cinclidae) from the Carpathian Mountains (locality ”Kríže” near the town of Bardejov, Slovak Republic, 21°17´ E, 49°18´ N), was performed during 1957. Recently, this bird has appeared in the Red Data List in Slovakia as a threatened species under the risk category "vulnerable". Out of a total of 3 adult and 13 juvenile dippers, 14 were parasitized by dilepidid cestodes. They belonged to four dipper specialists of the genus Cinclotaenia Macy, 1973 (i.e. Cinclotaenia tarnogradskii (Dinnik, 1827), C. georgievi Macko et Špakulová, 2002, C. dehiscens (Krabbe, 1879) and C. paradehiscens Špakulová, Macko et Macková, 2002) and the frequent bird tape-worm Dilepis undula (Schrank, 1788), which was found in dippers for the first time. Five dippers were infected by a single tapeworm species (C. dehiscens or C. paradehiscens), 7 birds were infected simultaneously by 2 randomly combined tapeworms and 2 birds by 3 tapeworms. Cestodes were stained either with Blazhin´s lactic acid carmine or with Semichon carmine, mounted in Canada balsam and measured. We review here the characteristics of the 5 dilepidid species found and propose a key to dipper specialists. Measurements are given in micrometers except where indicated.

HELMINTHOLOGIA, 40, 1:59-62, 2003

Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press