Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Vol. VI / No 1 / 1997
The author has presented an abundant overwiew of the rather complicated
present-day situation in post-Soviet Central Asian space, where several
cultural backgrounds has been confronted in the course of centuries. Though
the rule of former Soviet Union in this space was ended, the influence
of Russia still remains and Russia still intends to play its decisive role
in the region concerned. However, not only other powers, as China and India
are interested in this area, but also the islamic factor must not be omitted
as well. Uzbekistan with is central position has remained the most stable
country of the region, while building up a secular state based upon islamic
culture, and has to find its own way of development, emanating from two
fundamental criteria - state independence and economic selfsufficience
- and to defend its national interests.
Both the foreign relations and the future posssible development are analysed in the conclusive part of the article presented.
The environment, which has been created in this Central Asian republic is rather complicated. The real process of political pluralism development in Uzbekistan is just in its beginning. Alas, it follows the notorious way of ordeals and mistakes, though in many Asian countries this stage has been before long overpassed and a lot of experience in the fields of creation and mutual collaboration of political parties has been gained so far. However this experienced not only remain unused, but even omitted and not investigated, though the familiarisation with both foreign history and a theory of political present is an important development stage of a true political pluralism and then the democratisation of both social and political lives. This applies in the case of Uzbekistan as well, as it has been developed in the article presented.
Both the economic and strategic situations have been changing from the time, when the first treaty was concluded in 1774 between Russia and Turkey on the navigation through the straits, connecting Black and Aegean Seas. The issue of freedom of navigation has always brought threats to Turkey as the political situation was changing throughout times in the region. The last agreement on this issue has been the Montreux Convention on the Use of Dardanelles from 2nd July, 1936. Since its conclusion the freight volume increased more then thirty-fold bringing further new risks to Turkey. Therefore new naval regulations have been adopted recently (1994) by Turkey, what has been controversially accepted by the international community. Turkey, having considered the changed situation in the region and guarding its national interest as well as observing the principle of freedom of naval navigation, is keen to re-assess the present international legal state of affairs concerning the Straits.The whole of this issue has been briefly described in the presented article.
The presented article has brought an overview of the genesis, orientation characteristic and perspectives of the Central European Initiative as one from the forms of regional co-operation.The membership of this regional association which emerged in the time of the radical changes in Central European space has gradually increased from four founding members to the present-day sixteen, while due to these changes its name has been changed several times as well. Despite of the problems to cope with as well as accompanying scepticism, with which has been this association accepted, it is step-by step assumed to become an element of stability of the new security architecture in Europe. Such an aim should be attained through the orientation towards a pragmatic platform of co-operation, elimination of mistrust and overpassing the fragmentation of interests.
So as to characterise the Kuwaiti Parliament emanating from the 1992 election, it might have been described as oppositional and internally divided. Due to its specific institutional division, its oppositional character and pro-democratic orientation was paralysed and it was prevented from creating a required voting majority for several times in the recent past. The 1992 Parliament insisted upon its right to supervise the Administration through its own inquiry committees. The most fundamental controversy is that of the ideological orientation of deputies, who might be roughly divided between islamists and democrats. From the viewpoint of a state of law, the distribution of power issue was the most significant cause of the ideological problem. However the 1992 Parliament was successful in treating of such affairs as labour law, defence planning or public authorities trespasses. On the other side, it is to say that "war of sexes", human rights or unemployment are those from among not yet managed and still too controversial questions. There is a hope, as the new Parliament, having emanated from the 1996 election is expected to solve them soon. The new generation has brought up a lot of pragmatic more interested in results than in ideological struggle.
The issues of the good and and a good life from the metaphysical point of view as well as their achievement has been analysed by the author in the article presented. The discussions between the followers of both liberal and communitarian theories on the existence of just institutions and the issue of liberalist understaning of the good and the evil are discussed. Apart from this, the terms "neutrality" and "liberal autonomy" are subject to analyses. The task of the theory of justice has been defined in the conclusive part of the article.