Electronic Library of Scientific Literature
Vol. VII / No 1-2 / 1998
Each State manifests its life´s interest to participate actively at
international relations. The United Nations Charter, especially its Articles
1 and 2 - Purposes and Principles, must be considered as the necessary
foundation for recent international relations. These articles of the Charter
of the United Nations establish universally reorganized principles and
norms regulating international intercourse of States of the Family of Nations
at the end of XX. as well as at the beginning of XXI. centuries.
There are some differences as for the creation of the such rule of behaviours and its implementing into the life of international community. The international life is more complicated development of many various events, situations and controversies in the international arena. Such are facts that we should take into our analysis of international relations. The theories on international relations try to give answers on the issues. We underline the importance of international law ´s theory among them.
The Diplomacy is another very important tool in resolving controversies among the States of the contemporary international community. We differ the bilateral diplomacy from the multilateral one. The usual subjects of both diplomacies are the States as well as international organizations. The main sources of the diplomacy should be international law and its branch - the diplomatic law, the international diplomatic law. Whose the main sources are Vienna conventions on diplomatic and consular intercourses.
Further, the author tries to clarify the functions of diplomacy in the light of these conventions, especially, besides other the immunities and privileges of the diplomats.
By multilateral diplomacy, the author understands the diplomacy implemented by the international organizations and their organs. He differs so - called classic international oragnization based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its members (UNO) from that of integrated structure (EU).
The Slovak Republic is a young state and therefore its diplomacy faces many complicated situations after its entry in the international relations. As a new subject of international community Slovakia tries to be active in all fields of international life. The Slovak can fulfill their functions of the Slovak diplomacy at their best.
The process of European integration should be seen as the harmony of economic unification which is determined by a dynamic development with closed forms of intensive and deepening co-operation. Both processes, i.e. integration and co-operation, have been compared in the second part of the paper. The existence of a legal regime of its own is an important aspect of the economic integration. Therefore the necessity of national legal systems harmonisation, whose aim is to achieve the same legal regime for the common economic area, seems to be an inevitable process. As one from the driving forces of this process has become the need for balancing economic and social dimensions, the present-day EU policy responds to demanding challenges and it pays respect to the dignity of human being, while setting of the fundamental standard of social dimension is supposed in national legal order of the EU member states. The social policy of the EU has been therefore paid a close attention by the author. However the most challenging and prestigious act of the European integration has become the formation of a common European financial area, which is perceived in not only a European, but also in a world-wide context as well. It seems to be a process that is supposed to influence the development of international financial relations. This process bear certain level of risks, but it is really a unique opportunity for the creation of a single financial area for Europeans.
The author has devoted himself to a profound analysis of a present-day
state administration. Such question, as the fundamental legal principles
of state administration up to its interconnection with European structures
constitute the „spinal cord of the analysed subject, which has been divided
into ten relatively self-standing scopes while within each of them seven
ideas have been included.
Among individual scopes of analysis such subjects as its present, decentralisation, internal tension, regulating elements, structures, etc., have been analysed. Within each scope a brief comment and suggestion of future study have been added as well.
Apart from the above analyses, a model, representing essential attributes and activities of state administrations has been connected to each scope of the subject. A general description of the respective models have been given in the second part of the article presented.
The Caspian region is one from the most oil- and gas-rich regions in
the world. The estimated oil and gas reserves are believed to be around
16 billion tons. The geological location of the most perspective oil and
gas fields at the Caspian shelf determines the policy of littoral states
concerning the legal status of the basin which has not been solved yet.
Oil- and gas-rich Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan have proposed
the division of the Caspian Sea into five sectors according to terrestrial
border points. The Russian Federation and Iran (without real oil and gas
perspectives in their believed sectors) are opposing this attitude and
are insisting on a common use of the Caspian Sea in condominium.
As a matter of fact, the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons is going on, controlled by international oil and gas companies. The main technical problem to solve is the lack of transportation opportunities, as the construction of new pipelines from the region so as to access world markets is needed. Russia and Turkey are those most active in this question, followed by Georgia and Iran. The proposed oil pipelines through Russian or Georgian territories are to be terminated at Black Sea ports from where oil should be transported by supertankers, passing thus the Bosporus - Dardanelles Straits and in a case of accident then jeopardising 12 millions of inhabitants of Istanbul. Therefore and also from political reasons Turkey has proposed to build up a pipeline to Turkish Mediterranean oil terminal of Ceyhan. The Turkish position is backed by the USA looking for cutting of the Russian influence in the Caspian Region.
Due to technical and political reasons, it seems the most probable that all of the three proposed routes for oil will be constructed in ten years, if the output of oil will be as high as it is expected today.
The autor devoted his attention to the theory of „centers" and „peripheries" applied on the conditions of Latin America. Discrepancies between the rates of economic, technologic and social developments in „centers" and „peripheries" have occured due to both decreasing prices of raw material (exports) - together with dereasing demand for them - and increasing of those of industrial products (imports) together with increasing demand for them. One from amongst possible solutions of these problems, residing in both cjanges in inudstrial policices and the creation of common market in Latin America, has been insinuated in the presented paper.
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction
Peter Juza: Alexej Vladimirovič Mitrofanov: Šagi novoj geopolitiky (Russia)
Kamaludin Seražudinovič Gadžiev: Geopolitika (Russia)