Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press

Životné Prostredie

Volume 37 / 2003 / number 5

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Civilizace (kultura), téma k zamyšlení

J. Šmajs: Civilization (Culture) – a Theme for Contemplation. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5,
229 – 232, 2003.

An adequate philosophical concept of culture is one of the conditions of solution of the present conflict of culture (civilization) and nature. Besides natural cosmic evolution, the juvenile cultural evolution inflamed by the man is the second and last way of arising new ontic structures on the Earth. But the cultural evolution cannot build its own structures in other way than by suppressing and violating the natural abiotic and biotic orderliness, a valuable product of natural evolution. A decrease of natural orderliness of the biosphere (that has also created the man) endangers the man as well as culture. Culture is a result of human activities; it is an open non-linear system with inner information that is a spiritual culture. It is necessary to search reasons of its unnaturalness and quick spatial expansion in the content and structure of its constitutive information, social spiritual culture. A change of culture to a biophile culture is connected with a comprehension of the system base of culture as well as expansion and acceptance of biophile socio-cultural information. At overcoming the ecological crisis we need to know what are nature and culture, what is the base of the conflict – first existential endangerment of the man by reduced and destabilized biosphere.

Civilizace a příroda v dějinách myšlení

P. Jemelka: Civilization and Nature in the History of Philosophy. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 233 – 235, 2003.

A reflection of the environmental problems is an important part of the present philosophy. This perspective advances specifically the traditional philosophical enquire after a form and transformation of the man – nature relationship in context of the present global ecological crisis as one of the important features of today. A critical self-reflection, aiming to the history of a creation and development of this thematic perspective, is a standard part of this philosophical research. The history of the environmental philosophy (or ethics) is undertaken by many authors. A critical evaluation of the position and the role of our native philosophical production has not been elaborated yet.

Človek by mal žiť v záhrade...

Il faut cultiver le jardin.
        Voltaire: Candide

E. Višňovský: Man Should Live in a Garden... Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 236 – 239, 2003.

The paper reflects the relationship between culture and nature, indicating that culture has emerged from spontaneous Darwinian necessity as a human system adaptation mechanism to nature. Thus, culture is in every way the “continuation of nature by another means”. However, the most problematic aspect of culture in relation to nature is its artificiality. Nature does not prevent culture from creating the artificial world but this artificial world is at the same time much more vulnerable than nature. Through culture we are coping with nature but we have not managed to cope with culture itself. In order to solve contemporary human and environmental problems we need to develop a “metaculture”, i.e. a critical self-reflection of culture. As an example of creating different civilization, the author points to the city culture transformed and moulded according to the paradigm of a garden. The garden may serve as a model of harmonious environment in which the differences between natural and cultural aspects are both preserved and revoked at the same time and in the same place.

Vnášanie prírodných prvkov do urbanizovaného prostredia

J. Supuka: Implementation of Natural Elements to the Urban Environment. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 240 – 243, 2003.

The first human civilization in the natural environment has been developed in a balanced coincidence with its sources and values. Nature provided water, food, hiding place and material for production of elementary tools. There were also clear air and healthy environment. Knowledge of nature, soil cultivation and a general social progress has created assumption for settlement activity. Cities and rural settlements have arisen, and their progressive development lasts up to now.

The man is historically connected with nature elements; therefore they are logically preserved and or created in modified forms in settlements. According to the contemporary views and knowledge, the vegetation elements in cities have high importance, having a wide spectrum of ecological, environmental and social functions. Vegetation structure of contemporary cities is strongly influenced by conditions, which are being changed or modified by the man. In the urbanized landscape we can find three main vegetation element groups, such as natural, synanthropic (influenced by man) and cultural anthropogenic (on purpose arranged parks).

Tvorba parkov a iných umelých krajinných prvkov ako náhrada za prirodzené prostredie

Ľ. Feriancová: Parks and Other Artificial Landscape Elements as a Replacement of Natural Environment. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 244 – 248, 2003.

A contemporary park composition derives from English landscaping school. Contrary to the classical English approach, essential is to provide a park visitor with freedom of choice of destination, a possibility to explore, discover and feel the natural rules of the park. In the contemporary understanding, a park as a result of landscaping architecture has to be interconnected with its imminent and wider surroundings, site environment, soil and climactic conditions, infrastructure, and last but not least a local community. An urban park shall undoubtedly remain to be a place where an urban man seeks out contact with nature that evokes natural feeling of harmony, relaxation and peace. Hence it is obvious that composition of modern parks and urban green areas must originate from principles of nature-like scenes with utilization of natural grouping of herbal and wooden species while maintaining architectural harmony of environment.

Stavba, ktorá leží najvyššie

M. Dulla: Highest-Located Construction. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 249 – 253, 2003.

Many constructions built in Slovakia between the two wars are technically unique ones. One of them was the cableway from Tatranská Lomnica to the Lomnický štít peak. Its peak station is the highest-located built object in Slovakia (2627 m a s.l.). Even that time, there were discussions about its negative impact on the nature of the Tatra Mts. But it finally it has been built and from several standpoints it was a European record. That time it surpassed the highest altitudinal difference (1736 m), and in the third section it has the longest rope without support (1852 m). A construction of the top station in the rocky terrain was an extraordinary work. During the fist two years due to bad weather, snow and frost, only 40 days were favourable for construction activities. Technical enthusiasm of the builders was and still is alien to nature conservationists. At present the old cableway has the character of technical monument. The architect of both stations is Dušan Jurkovič. He designed the object from stony masonry. Although he was reproached for the fact, that he did not uncover the beauty of engineer constructions, his works has been lasting up to now. Later the top construction was enlarged to serve the needs of astronomical investigations.

Technické a výtvarné diela v krajine

D. Gažová: Technical and Art Works in Landscape. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 254 – 257, 2003.

Actual shape of environment is a result of the thousands-years old process of landscape metamorphoses from natural to cultured shape and social dimension. Development of agriculture brought the uprising of first human societies as well as the first technical works serving to the purpose of natural resource exploitation. Expressive advances of building technologies came particularly since the 19th century. New varieties of technical works occurred in towns and in locations with industrial production, extraction of raw materials and transportation.

Landscape planning activities are closely connected with natural conditions, because each intervention more or less prejudices them. An assumption of planning of a technical work is to minimally destroy natural biological conditions and to introduce technical constructions to harmony with landscape in technical as well as aesthetic aspect. Contemporary and historical technical works form an individual atmosphere in landscape. They supply energy and intensity to the place, contribute to the landscape composition, symbolize the interconnection of two poles (environments) the natural with the artificial ones.

Tendency to give aesthetic effectiveness to the landscape as a part of human environment, aims to accent its values, mode of its exploitation or ecological stage of landscape, brings to the picture of contemporary landscape besides technical works a great number of isolated works of art. They used to be a symbol of historical events (monument and memorials), complements of landscape functions, or a component of ecological and restorative arrangements, e.g. the land art works, which represent a new tendency of creative expression in open landscape.

Globalizácia a ilúzie v prístupoch k udržateľnému rozvoju

M. Šikula: Globalization and Illusions in Approaches to Sustainable Development. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 258 – 261, 2003.

From the first international ecological forum in Stockholm (1972) till the World Summit in Johannesburg (2002), the more and more repugnant process of gradual elaborating of the sustainable development requirements is running on the one hand, and the process of hidden or uncovered torpedoing of its change into addressed, globally effective and obligatory realizable program on the other hand. It seems that a real solving of the extreme problems of sustainable development is not possible in the frame of and by the means of economic and social mechanisms, as well as by the model of exploitation of the natural resources, which were born during the industrial revolution and were developed in the era of the industrial society. Also the understanding of sustainable development requires a radical change. Considering the time delay in the functioning of the climate system, it is necessary to approach sustainable development as a unity of its remedial and preventively adaptive side.

Atmosférický oxid uhličitý a agresivita srážkových vod v městském prostředí

H. Králová, P. Vybíralová, J. Malá: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aggressivity of Precipitation Water in Urban Environment. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 262 – 266, 2003.

A first part of the article deals with ambient carbon dioxide in the urban environment. A continuous measurement of this greenhouse gas has started at the Brno University of Technology in April 1999. The graphs show temporal and spatial variability of CO2 concentration values measured in Brno (April 1999 – August 2003).

Building constructions in urban environment are negatively influenced by carbon dioxide in atmosphere and in rainwater as well. Evaluation of aggressive effect of rainwater caused by carbon dioxide is based on calcium – carbonate equilibrium. At five localities in the city of Brno and its vicinity the rainwater was sampled and its aggressivity has been evaluated using Heyer’s test. The results of the test showed that rainwater in this urban environment during summer period (April – August 2003) did not have acid character and was aggressive.

Krajinná ekológia na Slovensku

M. Ružička: Landscape Ecology in Slovakia. Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 5, 267 – 268, 2003.

Beginning of landscape ecology in Slovakia is connected with solving the actual problems to harmonize the man’s social and economical activities with the ecological characteristics and assumptions of landscape. At formulation the landscape ecological conception, the Slovak scientists rely strongly on the ecological basis of complex landscape research. It was elaborated and developed the methodology of Landscape Ecological Planning (LANDEP) that takes into account the ecologically optimal use of landscape.

The development of landscape ecology in Slovakia is recently determined by deflection from the integral analysis followed by synthesis of landscape ecological attributes, towards landscape ecological typification and regionalization. The complex landscape ecological reflection, supported by solid research of the landscape ecological conditions and flows, disappears. The system of one to three years grants, without sufficient financial support, does not give the possibility for long-term and perspective research.

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