Electronic Library of Scientific Literature - © Academic Electronic Press

Životné Prostredie

Volume 37 / 2003 / number 6

Here you can download FULL version of Životné Prostredie 05/2003 in PDF format: 
Part 1(pp.283-299 – 1,7 MB),
 Part 2(pp.300-314 – 1,52 MB),
Part 3(pp.314-329 – 1,9 MB), Part 4(pp.330-335 – 740 kB).
Note: You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader 3 or newer. Pictures in electronic version are lower quality than printed. 



  • Esej

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  • Možnosti, riziká a problémy získavania surovín z komunálneho odpadu

    Š. Sklenár: Potential, Risks and Problems of Obtaining Raw Materials from Communal Waste. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 285 – 290, 2003.

    Recently the waste management in the Slovak Republic has undergone intensive development. Use of wastes – their material and energetic recycling – has a positive influence on the environment. In spite of the fact, that the new act on wastes supports the classification and recycling of separated wastes, in Slovakia we permanently face various problems while the most frequent mode of treatment is waste disposal. In practice, the technological, economical, environmental, legislative, information, organizational as well as psychological barriers prevent more intensive application of recycling. Systems of waste recycling used in our country have not sufficient feedback from inhabitants. Nor the economic motivation of people is appreciated duly. Municipalities must be more severe purchaser of services in waste management and they have to protect inhabitants against the interests of disposal enterprisers. Looking for other way is only the delaying of the solution.

    Možnosti realizácie separovaného zberu odpadu v obciach a mestách SR

    M. Lukáč: Prospects of Separated Waste Collection in Villages and Towns of the Slovak Republic. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 291 – 296, 2003.

    Despite the effort of majority of subjects concerned, the separation of communal waste in villages and towns of the Slovak Republic is not on the required level. Recently, the state administration has improved significantly the conditions for separated waste collection by legislative, organizational as well as economical measures. For municipalities and local governments due to insufficient information, fear of high unprofitability, insufficient funds but also reluctance, the separated waste collection has not yet become effectively operating part of the Programme of Waste Management. The article intends to contribute to the improvement of awareness of separated waste collection programmes in Slovakia.

    Analytická kontrola odpadov – nástroj ochrany životného prostredia

    M. Lacuška: Analytical Waste Control – the Instrument of Environmental Protection. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 297 – 299, 2003.

    The article informs about the environmental impacts of wastes due to unsuitable use and about a role of modern instruments of analytical chemistry in protection of the environment. It points at the risks in waste disposal and possibilities of their minimization by optimization of the selection of the suitable method and conditions of use/disposal of wastes. It puts emphasis on the importance of analysis of wastes in technological practice, when waste is used as raw material or source of raw material. The significance of codification of the demands for the extent of analysis according to its purpose was introduced to the legislative practice by the Act No. 238/1991 Zb. on wastes and pursuant regulations.

    Autovraky ako zdroj nových materiálov a surovín

    M. Badida et al.: Car Wrecks as a Source of New and Raw Materials. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 300 – 304, 2003.

    Cars represent serious environmental problem in all stages of their life cycle – production, use as well as processing after the expiration. In order to reutilize the materials used for the car construction and prevent negative impacts on the environment as well as loss of valuable secondary raw materials (rubber, plastic materials, glass etc.), there are necessary suitable technologies of dismantling and treatment of car wrecks. The systemic conception of recycling with respect to environmental and economical aspects is of the importance. The paper informs about the present approaches to car wreck recycling in the world as well as about the legislation regulating the disposal of car wrecks. It presents the conception of recycling line of car wrecks in Slovakia and informs about the utilization of single recycled components.

    Elektronický šrot – odpad z elektronických a elektrotechnických zariadení

    M. Rusko, P. Debnár, T. Krečmerová: Electronic Scrap – Waste from Electric and Electronic Installations. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 305 – 308, 2003.

    The main economic reason for the present recycling of electronic scrap is a recovery of precious metals (gold, silver, platinum). The environmental concern results from fact that the scrap contains also hazardous components (cadmium, lead, mercury, etc.), what causes problems at disposal sites. Processing of electronic scrap should be solved with complex wasteless technology, to derive also base metals (copper, iron, tin, zinc, lead, mercury), whereas plastic, ceramic and glass components, which can’t be recycled, should be disposed without environmental impacts. A significant element of environment – oriented product policy is eco-labelling, which starts to be used also in electrical and electronic industry.

    Spracovanie serpentinitovej odpadovej haldy

    M. Búgel, A. Pietriková: Processing of Serpentinite Disposal Site. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 309 – 311, 2003.

    The contribution deals with a new original technology of obtaining the very pure silicon dioxide (SiO2) and magnesium chloride MgCl2 from secondary serpentinite mineral raw material stored in the waste heaps in Dobšiná. In the part of these heaps there are residues of carcinogenic components of chrysolitic asbestos. The processing includes the physical modification of raw materials and their hydrometallurgical processing. The mentioned technology can be ranked among the environmental technologies.

    Niektoré možnosti využitia pieskových jadier a foriem po odlievaní

    J. Ladomerský et al.: Potential Use of Sand Cores and Forms after Casting. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 312 – 314, 2003.

    Single use of sand pouring forms and cores is one of the negatives of casting technologies. With these technologies it is connected the production of waste sand that is placed at the disposal sites. The paper presents the first results of the cooperation between research and industry in reutilization of waste sand that has high content of SiO2. It can be used in production of building materials (hydraulic admixture to connective materials, ceramic productions, bricks, blocks, prefabs, paving bricks and kerbs) as well as building of earth constructions.

    Problematika odpadov ako integrálna súčasť sanácie postihnutých urbánnych území

    M. Finka, D. Petríková, Ľ. Jamečný: Waste Treatment as an Integral Part of Rehabilitation of Distressed Urban Areas. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 314 – 317, 2003.

    An integral part of the sustainable development and waste management policy is the rehabilitation of large urban areas. The extent and distribution of large urban distressed areas in European cities shows that urban distress is observed and assessed in very different ways in the individual countries. The phenomenon of urban distress is seen in a comprehensive way and treatment approaches have become more integrated. In so far, the understanding of urban distressed areas differs strongly from traditional perceptions of socially degraded neighbourhood. At present, the urban rehabilitation strategies consist of various and multi-faceted approaches directed towards the regeneration of historical centres, the revitalisation and economic regeneration of old-industrial areas, sustainable tourism and the improvement of disordered urban structures, as well as partial strategies for environmental revitalisation.

    Regionálna analýza maximálnych prietokov

    S. Kohnová, Ľ. Solín, J. Szolgay: Regional Analysis of Maximum Discharges. 

    Život. Prostr., Vol. 37, No. 6, 318 – 324, 2003.

    Regional empirical flood formulae based on the relationship between flood quantiles and physiogra­phic catchment characteristics have usually been considered a safe solution for design discharge computation in ungauged basins in Slovakia. A number of new ideas and models were proposed in regional flood frequency analysis in recent years. In the paper an overview of the evolution of regional flood frequency theories is given together with a brief review of the main mathematical modeling concepts used. Two case studies based on different regional approaches are presented. A comparison of flood quantiles computed by the Hosking and Wallis regional approach is performed in a selected homogenous pooling group with statistical reference values and values derived using traditional envelope curve approaches. The applicability of the compared methods for design purposes was discussed. Limitations of the use of regional approaches for engineering hydrology are discussed.

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